Mains Frequency Converter Circuit Diagram

Introduction

The device called the converter changes an unstable voltage frequency from a mains source into a stable one using quartz crystal technology. Additionally, it has the capability to convert the mains frequency to either 100 Hz or 25 Hz from the standard 50 Hz. This Mains Frequency Converter Circuit is beneficial for providing an accurate frequency to low-power equipment without requiring an expensive 230V inverter, as it can be powered with a 12V car battery.



Circuit Diagram

of Mains Frequency Converter Circuit

This amplifier can be designed using a few basic components. The circuit diagram of this project is shown below.

Mains Frequency Converter Circuit Diagram
Mains Frequency Converter Circuit Diagram



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Working Explanation

of Mains Frequency Converter Circuit

The time base, IC1, of the converter is a crystal oscillator operating with a 3.2768 Mhz quartz crystal. This frequency is divided internally by 213 to give an output frequency of 400 Hz. The 400 Hz signal is applied to counter/divider IC2. When the reset of this IC is linked to Q8 (pin 9), the circuit operates as an :8 divider so that its output is exactly 50 Hz.


The output signals of IC2 are bundled by wired-OR gates D1-D3 and D4-D6 into U1 and U2 respectively. These signals (shown at the top of Figure 1) are used to control drivers T1 and T2 via parallel-connected inverters contained in IC3, a Type 4049 CMOS circuit. The drivers alternately switch a 12 V transformer winding into circuit, which, because of the constantly changing magnetic flux, results in a stable 230 V alternating voltage across the primary of the transformer.



The drivers are standard Type BD140 p-n-p transistors, so that the inverters in IC3 draw current when the the relevant driver is on. It is a well-known fact that CMOS elements are far better in drawing current than providing current. The drivers are protected against high-voltage spikes by zener diodes D12 and D13.
Capacitor C4, in conjunction with the stray inductance of the transformer, forms a bypass for high-frequency components in the primary winding of the transformer.

The frequency of the output voltage may be changed to 100 Hz or 25 Hz by linking Q11 (pin 1) or Q13 (pin 3) respectively to the clock input of IC2.

Note that in the supply circuit at the bottom of the diagram, diode D11 and capacitor C7 prevent excessive voltage fluctuations caused by the heavy load sented by the drive circuit from adversely affecting the operation of IC1 and IC2.

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Mains Frequency Converter Circuit Diagram
Mains Frequency Converter Circuit Diagram
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