Stepper Motor Control Circuit Diagram

Introduction

Stepper motor control circuits can be used to regulate and control the speed, torque, accuracy, and position of a rotary or linear system – enabling precise movement of a given part or machine. Generally speaking, stepper motors are driven by DC current and have multiple-phase windings that create magnetic fields – which in turn cause the shaft to rotate in discrete steps when the stepper driver sends out pulses of electric current. By changing the velocity of these input signals, you can adjust the power output at any given time – ultimately allowing for highly precise and controlled movements.



Circuit Diagram

of Stepper Motor Control Circuit

Stepper Motor Control Circuit Diagram



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Working Explanation

of Stepper Motor Control Circuit

The manipulation is a compact layout for using bipolar stepper motors. Driver stages IC1 (L297)‚ and IC3 (L6203) are modern types from ST Microelectronics. Due to the combination of cmos good judgment with d-mos electricity transistors, those devices need few external components. Additionally, in comparison with the previous technology of bipolar devices inclusive of the l298, the d-mos transistors drop decrease voltages so that the inner dissipation is smaller.

Stepper motor control PCB
Stepper Motor Control PCB

The input stage, IC1‚, enables the motor to proceed one step for each pulse at its input pin 18. The level at pin 17 (CW/CCW) determines whether the motor rotates clockwise or anticlockwise. The level at pin 19 comes to a decision on whether the motor movements are complete or half steps for every pulse at pin 18. In normal operation, pin 20(reset), pin 11 (control), and pin 10 (enable) should be linked to the +5 V supply. Pin 1 (sync) is an output used when several L297s are driven in tandem and should be left open in the present design. Pin 3 (home) is an output that indicates when outputs A, B, C, and D, assume the binary code 0101 and is not used in the present design. The other pins are of less importance and will in most cases not be used at all - further information may be obtained from the Internet address http://www.us.st.com



Stepper motor control board
Stepper Motor Control Board

For the reason that modern-day via motor coils have to not simplest be switched on and rancid, but also be reversed, the motive force ics comprise a whole bridge shaped by way of four d-mosfets. The upper two need to be driven by a potential that is higher than the supply voltage, and this is obtained with the aid of a bootstrap circuit (C5, C6). Network R4-C11 suppresses voltage peaks across
the motor terminals. Most of the other capacitors in the diagram are decoupling (bypass) elements.

The driving force ics can cope with currents of as much as 4 A at voltages as much as 42V. For protection's sake, it's miles higher for the voltage to Continue to be nicely underneath 42 v; the current is internally limited to 4 A. Any tendency of the current to rise above this level is sensed by resistors R6 and R7, whereupon the IC is disabled. The value, R, of these resistors, must, therefore, be in line with Im, the motor current: R=1/1m: The driver ICs are provided with internal thermal protection, but when the dissipation is large, it is advisable to mount them on a suitable heat sink. They do not get damaged by heat, but they do switch off the motor when the temperature rises above the maximum specified temperature.

Finally, it should be noted that IC1‚ operates from a +5 V supply (via K1) from which it draws a current of about 50 mA. The voltage at pins 0 and + is intended for the stepper motor and should be equal to, or a little higher than, the rated motor voltage.



Components List

of Stepper Motor Control Circuit


  • Resistors:
  • R] = 22 k
  • R2 = 3.9 k
  • R3 = 1 k
  • R4, R5 = 10 k
  • R6, R7 = 0.5 ohm, 3 W (see text)

    Capacitors:
  • C₁ = 3.3 nF
  • C2, C9, C10 = 100 nF
  • C3, C4 = 220 nF
  • C5-Cg = 15 nF
  • C11, C12 = 22 nF
  • C13 = 10 uF, 63 V, rad.

    Semiconductors:
  • IC1 = L297 (ST Microelectronics)
  • IC2, IC3 = L6203 (ST Microelectronics)

    Miscellaneous:
  • K1 = 10-way header
  • PC1-PC6 = PCB pins
  • L1, L2 = bipolar stepper motor

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Conclusion

The use of stepper motor controls is a great way to ensure precise positioning and orientation of workpieces and other objects in any manufacturing process. With the right hardware and software, it can be easy to configure and control stepper motors for various applications in both commercial and industrial settings. The main benefit of using stepper motors is their ability to accurately position objects with minimal power consumption. It also features an interactive feedback system, making it easier for users to monitor the progress of their projects or devices. Moreover, stepper motors have the potential to reduce costs associated with maintenance due to its reliable performance over time even at extreme temperatures and conditions. All in all, when used properly, stepper motor control can be an effective tool in enhancing speed and accuracy on many different tasks.

Stepper Motor Control Circuit Diagram
Stepper Motor Control Circuit Diagram
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